Article:
** The beginning of the general theory of a universum (BGTU). **
The author:
Zolotuhin Vladimir Antonovich (Academician IAASDI,
the doctor of the Russian Academy of Natural Sciences).
** Preamble.**
The modern physical picture of the World is not complete and represents fragments in which basis are put conflicting interactions postulates of Quantum mechanics (QM) and Theories of a relativity (TR). To these templates are adjusted cosmologic and cosmogonic constructions.
Existing fundamental contradictions between QM and TR manage default and "contractual" differentiation of applicability. So, for example, main principle TR is a continuity, and the QM operates with discrete categories. Besides, if QM it is proved enough and internally consistent (not always is present only иллюстративность) by a part TR collects more and more actual material not keeping within its positions. Does not rescue TR the mathematical apparatus used by its adherents for a substantiation of a solvency of the theory "forgetting" that it only the tool - no means always cutting the false concept.
Phenomenologically TR are denied by a simple logic course. In a basis TR lies the idea, reduced to that «… from body everyone moving or being in rest it is possible to construct independent system of co-ordinates...». And, all systems of co-ordinates (from any object) are absolutely equal in rights and is not offered to any body of advantage under its characteristics (to weight, density, the sizes etc.). We fix this position.
In practical expression it means that if there are two independent objects (A;B) moving rather each other from a position TR is possible is absolutely equal in rights to consider:
a) The object A is in rest, the object B move with certain speed concerning object A.
b) The object B be in rest, the object A moves with certain speed concerning object B.
Both considerations, from a position TR, are absolutely equal in rights at any characteristics of objects - without any restrictions and reservations. We fix also it.
Exists, along with theoretical substantiations, a considerable quantity of experimental data (the elementary particles received on accelerators) that at approach to a velocity of light (C) (~300 000 km/s) the additional impulse given to accelerated object, lead to increase in weight of object, but not to speed (not overcom a light barrier). It is not established any restrictions on escalating of weight of objects in such a way.
A priori it is possible to consider that at speed of object V = C its weight aspires to infinity. That is, - object collapsing in a black hole!
From fixed before positions follows that with any object of the Universe it is possible to compare huge quantity of other objects moving with a velocity of light (the same photons) and consequently, on TR any object of the Universe can be considered as moving with a velocity of light. Thus, all objects of the Universe should gravitationally (initially) collapse in black holes. As a matter of fact, if strictly to follow TR, the Universe, in an observable kind - should not take place.
Surprises so a considerable quantity of physicists-theorists, long time supporting THIS theory.
It is possible to admit the subsequent attempts of adherents TR by sophistical shifts or mathematical manipulations to rescue it, but they will not give result, in view of an inconsistency of the given theory.
Model (adequate to the Universe) most intensively chaos "the unique" Theory of the Relativity - easily denied here.
As a whole, it is possible to ascertain obvious crisis in bases of a physical picture of the world. What exit? Exit radical revision of all set of the theoretical bases making a picture of a structure of a universum sees.
**Principles and approaches required At construction the BGTU.**
It is necessary to carry to principles saved up universal methodological luggage of scientific knowledge of the world. To it,
Except universal principles it is necessary to observe and special, owing to specificity of a considered subject. To them it is necessary to carry the requirement to theoretical constructions - an explanation of monism the Universe (action of uniform physical laws on all visible Universe).
In the given work the I has decided to do without application of the mathematical proving device. First, such decision мотивировано desire as much as possible to popularize it.
Secondly, the I not the supporter fetishization mathematicians, considers it as one of tools and a sign with examples: as behind a refined mathematical screen illusory representations disappear. At the same time, in development of the positions fixed in article probably (and even it is desirable) software.
With a view of as much as possible compact statement of positions the author has chosen the form of postulates. Postulates are allocated with a bold type, along with "accentuation" of statements. The postulates stated in extremely capacious kind, are accompanied by the vast comments, called to give exemblariness, to the positions formulated in postulates.
To a question on a scientific (author's) priority. As the reference part in modern conditions, taking into account Internet materials, «aspires to infinity» I has considered possible - in general has refused references (yes prey authors will forgive).
If someone from prey authors finds out the earlier published thoughts it is invited with documentary acknowledgement of earlier publications to discussion with the author of given article in the text. If acknowledgement is weighty - I am ready «to take off a hat» before the prey authors. I invite as witnesses of all competent persons who can independently size up a priority problem. At the same time, there is a basis to declare that the given work is not compilatory. It is a product of creative processing of all saved up scientific luggage on a corresponding direction. That it has turned out - to judge to the expert reader.
**Cosmologic and cosmogonic bases.**
Starting a statement cosmologic and cosmogonic bases, it is necessary to choose the most "digestible" form of a narration that it was as much as possible coherent and consecutive. We will use experience of ancestors which put before itself similar problems. There were they from simple (elementary) to difficult, from the creation (!) beginning to the subsequent development. That is, developed thought quite dialectically, being mainly idealists.
So, what elementary bases of our World and to what the primary certificate of creation is represented?
At the heart of bases the principle accepted and supported by the majority modern cosmogonists should be put. In brief it can be formulated in such kind.
** We can exist in the observable Universe (with all its set of properties and constants) because at their other combinations however-or a difficult condition of a matter practically unrealizable.** Mathematical modeling of a condition of a matter at others (at all so distinct from established) values of fundamental physical constants, has shown extreme simplification of a condition of a matter. We will distract (while) from a question on original causes and sources of the given principle, but we recognize its scientific solvency. We will in passing not prohibites models of possible existence of other Universes with other set of physical constants.
What primary certificate of creation which has entailed occurrence of the Universe with all its complexity could be?
Parallel expansion of three-dimensional system of co-ordinates (XYZ) and occurrence primary elementary filler physical vacuum (in former treatment - a world ether) is represented to the most probable. I will make the reservation that ignoring of filling of vacuum, within the limits of the long-range action concept, by this time has definitively gone bankrupt. Let though through «a black input» physical vacuum, but physicist it is compelled will return to the concept short-range and to recognise presence, as a matter of fact, the same a ether with reservations - having allocated with a number of specific properties and naming its physical vacuum. What elementary particle (is more correct - elementary quantum) vacuum? We name it quantrin. Unfortunately, names: quanton and quantino - "are worn out" by other authors - unsuccessfully trying to construct bases cosmogony.
What essence quantrin: its genesis, the list of properties, interrelation with other categories of a universe? Let's begin with formation primary or reference quantrin. Before to be formed reference quantrin, entry conditions should take place. It is necessary to carry to entry conditions: basic topological laws. It is necessary to carry number to the such Pi(3,14 …) the golden section, etc. Basic laws participated in formation of physical constants (a gravitational constant; Planck's constant etc.).
Physical constants are derivative of basic topological laws.
Why in numerical expression of physical constants the parity with numerical values of basic topological laws is not traced? The answer is simple: the science for the present has not defined their exhaustive list and numerical values. As soon as it will occur, there is obvious a role of basic topological laws in formation of numerical values of physical constants.
So, there were preconditions for formation reference quantrin. Where it has occurred? It has occurred in hyperspace to number of coordinates at least two.
** It is possible to consider reference quantrin as fluctuation of a two-dimensional membrane from subsequent infinite it осцилляцией, expressed in an electric charge: from (-1) to (+1). **
** **Reference quantrin it is senseless to argue on dimension, so-so all has occurred out of our spatial and time continuum.
Further, our spatial continuum was developed. (X;Y;Z). The spatial continuum was in parallel developed mirror to ours (-X;-Y;-Z). Both continuums represent analogue of the two-mirror resonator in which infinite quantity of times it was reflected reference quantrin. Thus its reflexion has got characteristic dimension for our continuum - less than the bottom quantum level (<10-33 cm) It - instead of model: «vacuum boiling by virtual particles» with the characteristic sizes <10-33 cm.
**The shown scheme allows to explain monism to the Universe.** We name reflected from reference quantrin object elementary quantron (or it is simple quantron) and we will describe its properties. But, before it is necessary to explain: as affairs with continuums are. Both continuums topologicalle are enclosed each other and represent a uniform super continuum which it is possible
To write down (X;-X;; Y;-Y;; Z;-Z).
Law is generalized logically: «the General theory of a universum» - is characteristic inversion of directions of the Universe.
**Thus dimensions (X; Y; Z) are characterized by a positive time vector, and dimension (-X;-Y;-Z) a negative time vector. The greater number of spatially-time measurements is superfluous and is not realised in the Universe.**
** ** Quantrons all our Universe is filled. Quantrons, instead of a set of virtual particles and antiparticles in earlier offered models of physical vacuum. Quantrons it is constant oscillate, instead of are certain quasistatic particles as in earlier offered models.
**Oscillate quantrons, submitting to a tuning fork reference quantrin; define characteristics (a time vector and dimension) spaces of our Universe. Oscillate quantrons are elementary bricks of physical vacuum or an aether) our Universe. **
** Oscillate quantrons are not observed by modern instrument means, but are shown through properties of particles and through the general physical laws (see more low). Are not observed (directly) as are below the bottom quantum level. At overcoming of quantum level quantron forms an elementary particle. **
** The power characteristic quantron is limited by the bottom quantum level.**
** Frequency of fluctuations separate quantron (or groups) characterizes local time characteristics of space. The range of fluctuations characterizes local gravitational (or mass in substance) the space characteristic. **
** At extreme characteristics quantrons conditions for formation of a black hole can be formed. All the nearest quantrons are in interactions with each other and aspire to transfer to neighbors the local characteristics, submitting to laws of power balance **
** Quantrons oscillate not in one plane, but in constant rotation in all 3 measurements (changing planes oscillate). At the expense of it in a microcosm (at elementary particles) it is shown backs, and in a macrocosm magnetic displays (the ordered rotation oscillate quantrons).**
** Rotation quantrons is caused by shift of parallelism of continuums (X; Y;Z) and (-X;-Y;-Z) at multiplexing quantrons from reference квантрина (the inflation concept). **
The basic properties квантронов - fundamental "bricks" of physical vacuum and a matter (see more low) are that.
** Matter structure.**
The understanding easily and simply follows from the shown scheme: gravitation, existential effects and the other fixed laws.
Making a start from the shown concept, we will pass to an explanation of properties and structures of elementary particles. Let's begin with a photon. **A photon it anything other, as a cross-section wave (modulation) quantrons.** Here too all rises on the places from the point of view of properties of photons (gamma quanta, and other displays of electromagnetic radiation). It is possible to build also a logic chain to understanding **of a velocity of light - as a derivative of characteristics reference quantrin in a projection to our Universe.**
** ** Having understood with photons - we will consider neutrino. Neutrino have common features with photons. In what a difference in the light of the sights stated here and approaches? The physical basis of a photon and нейтрино is identical. A difference in distinction of frequencies of photons and neutrino. Neutrino differs higher frequency characteristic in comparison with a photon. **Frequencies neutrino obviously above, and the length of a wave is less than at any gamma quanta.** Why neutrino so poorly co-operates with substance of our Universe? The answer is simple. There is one more quantum limit (frequency) which while numerically is not defined since which electromagnetic radiation practically does not cooperate with substance. The next quantum limit (an interaction barrier), expressed in length of an electromagnetic wave is estimated ~ 10-13 - 10-15 cm.
Some interaction neutrino with our material world can be explained the resonant phenomena and original tunnel effect at the given quantum level. As to various types neutrino (electronic, muon) all difference can be explained polarization of a wave or (and) its characteristic length. All other effects on neitrino - discrepancy of measurements.
From told presence of the several quantum levels setting frame restriction in our material world unequivocally follows. Such quantum levels concern:
**1) the bottom quantum level limiting displays quantrons ~ 10**-33** cm; **
** 2) a quantum limit of interaction нейтрино (length of a wave) with substance ~ 10**-13** - 10**-15** cm; **
** 3) a quantum limit корпускуляции elementary particles (конфанмент nucleons) ~ 2.5 **×**10**-13** сm;**
** 4) quantum levels of electronic covers of atoms ~ 10**-9** cm. Other quantum levels in "grey" (while not observed) a range from 0,5 **×**10**-17** sm to the bottom quantum level are possible also.**
** Elementary particles.**
Elementary particles (in classical understanding) have appeared "are not so elementary", but are rather difficult arranged. To rather elementary, it is possible to carry unless leptons. If with neutrino and photons we have understood, having offered modulation model oscillate quantrons with electrons and positrons** the short circuit model in a ring modulated (in a photon range of modulation) oscillate split quantrons quantrons most approaches. **
** The size of a ring is to derivatives of weight of rest electron. Splitting quantron on charged (-; +) segments occurs at formation of pair an electron-positron from high-energy photons (at annihilation steams an electron-positron process goes in the opposite direction). Split quantron it is sphered getting spin and charging characteristics. Mutually antithetical (but equal on size) backs electrons and positrons unambiguously testify that the given transformation (formation elektron-pozitron steams) occurs to participation of mirror system of co-ordinates (-X;-Y;-Z). Also it testifies about interaction between nesting our and mirror system of coordinates (X-X; Y-Y; Z-Z), as the given transformation is possible in any point sew the Universe. The given statement is absolutely new and should be especially fixed.**
It is necessary to tell that similar (primitive) on shown, models were put forward earlier by other authors. I consider the given model adequate - a matter reflecting a true structure. As to other leptons that all from distinction from electrons and positrons consists in redundancy of weight and spin characteristics that too is easily explainable in the light of offered model - increase in radius of a ring and corresponding to it of weight. The radius changes not continuously, but according to certain quantum levels. So free mu-mezon are arranged. As these quantum levels are intermediate and existence of the given particles is so short.
Let's consider now nucleons (protons and neutrons). The given consideration should be spent taking into account experimentally fixed presence difficult quark structures of nucleons. As to necessity of presence gluons it is not so obvious. Models of communication of quarks in sphere confanment can be and others. It is experimentally established as well "triplicity" of a structure of a nucleon (a proton - uud; a neutron - udd). It too should be considered.** It is represented to the most adequate (at the description of structure of nucleons) - all the same model of ring isolation modulated квантронов in area confanment.**
What basically can be the closed modulations quantrons? The elementary geometry is the ring (electrons and positrons).
The second is a figure of rotation round diameter of a ring (a sphere; ellipsoid rotations) The third is the closed helicoid trajectory - toroid (one of the most perspective models). If to rotate toroid round a long secant of an axis that again we will receive a volume figure close to a sphere.
**If the secant toroid a plane moves on the closed ring we will receive toroid the second level. If this procedure to repeat that it is possible to receive toroid the third and the subsequent levels. That is - it is realised infinite geometrical fractality.**
Taking into account change of a direction of rotation it is possible to explain all spin characteristics of elementary particles on this model. This and a little complicated model quite suits an explanation of all laws quantum hromodinamic (strangeness, chromaticity, charm).
**As model complication it is necessary to consider ability to splitting of charges quantrons (-1; +1). Not split quantron has a zero electric charge.**
It is necessary to carry ability to moving of modulations to model complication quantrons not only on a ring but on closed eight such trajectories., By the way, it is possible to replace with this model gluon model of communications of quarks in confanment nucleons. Eight such (volume) models quite illustrate behaviour of quarks. With the account three (trinity) quarks in nucleons (uud; udd) it is possible to offer model of a three-beam direction of vectors of modulations quantrons. **These directions correspond to tridimentionality of space of our Universe.** The latest model demands the explanatory. It is possible to result some analogy to three extended inflatable balls connected in one point. It is clear, that all analogies have the limited approach, but on the given example is reached exemplariness (illustration).
All аdrons can be modeled the others too under the shown scheme taking into account their quantum and other characteristics. At modeling it is necessary to consider necessarily ability квантронов to be split on (+;-) components of the oscillations. Operate (anywhere do not share) laws: conservation of energy; charge preservations; accumulation of entropy, etc. earlier established fundamental laws. **At the description of properties and formations of antiparticles it is necessary to consider "mirror" influence (-X;-Y;-Z) spatial measurements. **
As to fractional charges at quarks …
In real adrons under the shown concept of that is not present. All is result of "virtual constructions» with adjustment under experimental result. Eight such wandering of modulations split quantrons on confanment a nucleon perfectly explains all. It is necessary to mean also the following.
It is impossible to transfer noncritically results of experiments collisional processes in collyders on properties and a matter structure in **not EXTREME **condition. In one condition - quantum frameworks (restriction) are washed away, in other case - they are rigid and assessing. Thus, the conceptual picture of physics of elementary particles should be reconsidered in the light of the given concept - on the basis of **ALL** file of the saved up facts.
** **
** The basic conclusions.**
Feature and law of functioning of a universe needs to generalise, show following consequences and possible useful application.
First, under the given concept the problem of gravitation which in the generalised kind is formulated as follows visually and simply dares.
**Gravitation is a consequence of different amplitude oscillate (fluctuations) quantrons. There where the big amplitude of fluctuations - there discharged space occupied , the attraction vector also is directed to this area. As quantrons constantly energetically co-operate with each other it and the gradient of force of an attraction (gradual escalating or falling) is caused. **
Any special «gravitons» in the given model to think out there is no necessity. It becomes clear - why gravitation costs independently concerning other kinds of interaction. It is necessary to ascertain that speed of gravitational interaction is limited by a velocity of light (C).
** If the amplitude of fluctuations quantrons exceeds the bottom quantum restriction the elementary particle with the corresponding weight of rest (closed in a ring, or more difficult configurations oscillate quantrons is formed).**
In the light of the given concept it is clear - why no material body can faster move a velocity of light.** As a matter of fact, a matter - a package oscillate quantrons limited by a velocity of light**. The material body consists of great variety of packages oscillate. Also it is clear (from power interaction quantrons) why at approach to a velocity of light the weight of particles (the amplitude оscillate quantrons grows) increases, but the velocity of light is not overcome. The effect of local delay (for elementary particles) time is clear at amplitude increase oscillate quantrons. In limiting cases (at extreme values of amplitude oscillate quantrons) the mechanism **of formation of black holes is clear**.
**The considered concept unambiguously shows: for fundamental character of electric charges at level quantrons also gives up hope - to find ways of management gravitation, operating with electromagnetic interactions.**
Ways of achievement of this purpose are comprehended now.
On more remote prospect it is possible to set the task: to find exit ways (without loss of structure of material bodies) for limits of our spatial continuum (X; Y; Z) and the subsequent input in **the remote **point. That is, to set the task: to find not destroying (for object) ways quasi-movement material bodies and signals **"faster" a velocity of light**. Approaches not contradicting physical laws to the decision of the given problem already are looked through. There are ways of the decision of problems: a dark matter and dark energy, and also prospects of useful use of phenomena with them connected are comprehended. But it is themes already the subsequent researches and publications.
** The conclusion.**
It is possible to concern the shown material on a miscellaneous. It is possible to rethink and make own **vision of a picture of the WORLD critically.**
It is possible to accept unconditionally and further to develop and build on the elements which are not contradicting supervision and established facts, and also here to the formulated postulates. It is impossible to wave away only from stated or to ignore. The offered concept **(BGTU)** has ability to development. It it is possible to increase, specify and deduce branches in adjacent scientific directions. As the author of the offered concept I undertake to undertake a maximum of efforts to inform it to the scientific and wide public.
To a question on an author's priority. **Separate** elements of the offered concept (**fragmentary**), in other context, a statement and formulations) were available for other authors. Do not consider obligatory them to quote.
It agree the right of any author - to defend the priority if there is a proof of earlier publications. At the same time, I ascertain,
**That so complete cosmogonic and cosmologic the scientific picture of the World ANYBODY did not offer earlier **.
I invite all competent experts to coauthors hip on development and escalating the BGTU with prospect of its transformation in the **GENERAL THEORY of the UNIVERSUM (GTU**).
The academician of the International academy authors
of scientific discoveries and inventions (IAASDI) Zolotuhin Vladimir Antonovich.
**The announcement. **
Article:
** High-temperature superconductivity (HTSC). **
The author: Zolotuhin Vladimir Antonovich (Academician IAASDI,
the doctor of the Russian Academy of Natural Sciences).
Technology of creation of materials possessing property high-temperature (to room temperatures and above) superconductivity (absence of electric resistance). |